Chromosomes Gene Structure

Chromosomes represent smaller chopped up pieces of the genetic code that we all carry and these chromosomes are the genetic code wrapped up and insulated against damage.

Therefore along the length of each chromosome there are various genes that control the various functions of our bodies and lives.  We all have pairs of chromosomes since we inherit one set of genetic code from our mother and one set from our father.

Another way of looking at this is to imagine the chromosomes as volumes of an encyclopaedia and just like the volumes the thickness may vary depending on the information contained.

Chromosomes likewise can be bigger or smaller depending on the amount of genetic material they have along their length.

  • In all there are 23 pairs of chromosomes with females having two XX chromosomes and males having one X and one Y.
  • Chromosomes are numbered according to size with the largest being number 1 and the smallest being number 22.
  • The X chromosome is in fact about the size of chromosome number 6 but is kept out separately since it carries the information for sex determination along with many other genes.